dictionary

  • Botnet

    The term botnet refers to a group of computers (sometimes called zombies) that have been infected with malware to perform tasks for whomever distributed said threat. This individual, or organization, controls the botnet by sending instructions to the zombies from one or more Command & Control (C&C) servers. This is one of most used techniques to carry out brute force attacks against servers - or group of servers.

  • Brute Force Attack

    A brute force attack is just a trial and error process, that runs repeatedly to obtain the correct username and password information. An automated software is being used in this process which does not decrypt the information but just continue trying with set of words and letters.. Millions of IP’s and huge number of computers are involved in this process to check different username and password combinations and avoid triggering multiple attempt limits.

  • Clickjacking

    Is a malicious technique of tricking a Web user into clicking on something different from what the user perceives they are clicking on, thus potentially revealing confidential information or taking control of their computer while clicking on seemingly innocuous web pages. On a clickjacked page, the attackers load another page over it in a transparent layer, in most cases using HTML FRAME based techniques. The users think that they are clicking the buttons they are actually seeing, while they are in fact performing actions on the hidden page. This way the attackers can trick users into performing actions which the users never intended. There is no way of tracing such actions to the attackers later, as the users would have been genuinely authenticated on the hidden page.

  • Cross Site Scripting (XSS)

    Cross Site Scripting is a hacking technique whereby malicious scripting code (usually javascript) is injected into user input forms (in a similar way to SQL injection attacks) or incorporated in a URL query string.

  • CSRF Attack

    A Cross Site Request Forgery (CSRF) attack relies on the trust a website has for a user to execute unauthorized requests and or transactions. For example, say a user is logged into their Joomla! websites' administrator interface in one tab and is browsing a compromised site in another tab.

  • Denial of Service Attacks (DOS, DDOS)

    A denial of service attack takes place when a hacker overloads a system with large or repeated requests for a service.

  • Directory Traversal

    A website is stored within a file system on a server. Some of the server's file system is therefore exposed to the outside world and can be accessed by an end-user's web browser. The part of the file system (or directory structure) that is visible to the outside world is limited to a specific root folder and its contents.

  • Full Path Disclosure

    Full Path Disclosure (FPD) vulnerabilities enable the attacker to see the path to the webroot/file. e.g.: /home/omg/htdocs/file/. Certain vulnerabilities, such as using the load_file() (within a SQL Injection ) query to view the page source, require the attacker to have the full path to the file they wish to view. Then the attacker can use this info to perform other type of attacks based on the obtained information.

  • HTTP Sniffing

    HTTP stands for 'HyperText Transfer Protocol', and it is the mechanism used to transfer data from one computer to another across the Internet. You can use HTTP to request information from a server, or to send information to a client by wrapping the request or data in a 'packet'.

  • JavaScript hijacking

    JavaScript hijacking is a technique that an attacker can use to masquerade as a valid user and read sensitive data from a vulnerable Web application, particularly one using Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML). Nearly all major Ajax applications have been found vulnerable.

  • Other usual hacker tactics

    There are numerous other tactics that can be used to break into a computer system, and these usually involve discovering weaknesses or loopholes in the server software's defenses. When a programmer writes software that runs on a web server, he tries to make sure that the software cannot be abused - but it can be very difficult to foresee every eventuality; vandals and hackers are always pushing software to the limit and trying out operations which the software was not designed to handle, in an attempt to discover a way in.

  • Resource Injection

    This attack consists of changing resource identifiers used by an application in order to perform a malicious task. When an application permits a user input to define a resource, like a file name or port number, this data can be manipulated to execute or access different resources.

  • RFI/LFI

    Remote File Inclusion (RFI) is a type of vulnerability most often found on websites. It allows an attacker to include a remote file, usually through a script on the web server. His pair, Local File Inclusion or LFI is basically the same technique, used on sites which have been successfully penetrated, and the hacker "planted" his files already on the server.

  • SQL Injection

    One popular and potentially devastating method of attack against Joomla powered sites is SQL injection. Any web application that makes use of a database usually communicates with the database for necessary functions using a special language known as 'Structured Query Language', or SQL. Joomla, by the way, uses an open source implementation of this language, MySQL.

  • The pharma hack

    The Paharma Hack (or Blackhat SEO Spam Hack) is a very elaborated hack wich is often unobserved for the regular visitors - and website owners - because does an ingenious trick: present a different version of your site for the searchengine bots. The site, for a long period of time looks and behaves normally for the regular visitors. This attack is very interesting because it is not visible to the normal user and the spam (generally about Viagra, Nexium, Cialis, etc) only shows up if the user agent is from Google’s crawler (googlebot). Also, the infection is a bit tricky to remove and if not done properly will keep reappearing. It's one of nastiest hacks you might have. We recommend hiring a specialist to remove it, because generally the infection reappears in no time after the site is "cleaned".

  • Two-factor authentication

    Also known as two step-authentication or two-step verification, two-factor authentication is an additional security option for online accounts to help keep them safe.

  • Vandalism and Hacking

    Vandals often use hacking techniques to deface a website or destroy data and files, but there are also those who just want to steal resources (make use of other peoples' servers without their knowledge or permission) or to cover their tracks by stealthily making use of hardware owned by legitimate businesses to carry out processing for illegal operations or to relay spam and viruses to others.